Content- 6.1 Meaning 6.2 Steps in Control process 6.3 Types of control: feed forward, feedback, concurrent 6.4 Time Management
The control process involves carefully collecting information about a system, process, person, or group of people in order to make necessary decisions about each.
6.2 STEPS IN CONTROL PROCESS
1. Establish standards to measure performance.
Within an organization's overall strategic plan, managers define goals for organizational departments in specific, operational terms that include standards of performance to compare with organizational activities.
2. Measure actual performance.
Most organizations prepare formal reports of performance measurements that manager’s review regularly. These measurements should be related to the standards set in the first step of the control process. For example, if sales growth is a target, the organization should have a means of gathering and reporting sales data.
3. Compare performance with the standards.
This step compares actual activities to performance standards. When managers read computer reports or walk through their plants, they identify whether actual performance meets, exceeds, or falls short of standards. Typically, performance reports simplify such comparison by placing the performance standards for the reporting period alongside the actual performance for the same period and by computing the variance—that is, the difference between each actual amount and the associated standard.
4. Take corrective actions.
When performance deviates from standards, managers must determine what changes, if any, are necessary and how to apply them. In the productivity and quality, cantered environment, workers and managers are often empowered to evaluate their own work. After the evaluator determines the cause or causes of deviation, he or she can take the fourth step—corrective action. The most effective course may be prescribed by policies or may be best left up to employees' judgment and initiative.
These steps must be repeated periodically until the organizational goal is achieved.
6.3 TYPES OF CONTROL: FEED FORWARD, FEEDBACK, CONCURRENT
Types of Organizational Controls
Control can focus on events before, during, or after a process. For example, a local automobile dealer can focus on activities before, during, or after sales of new cars. Careful inspection of new cars and cautious selection of sales employees are ways to ensure high quality or profitable sales even before those sales take place. Monitoring how salespeople act with customers is a control during the sales task. Counting the number of new cars sold during the month and telephoning buyers about their satisfaction with sales transactions are controls after sales have occurred. These types of controls are formally called feed forward, concurrent, and feedback, respectively.
Feed Forward Controls,
Feed forward controls, sometimes called preliminary or preventive controls, attempt to identify and prevent deviations in the standards before they occur. Feed forward controls focus on human, material, and financial resources within the organization. These controls are evident in the selection and hiring of new employees. For example, organizations attempt to improve the likelihood that employees will perform up to standards by identifying the necessary job skills and by using tests and other screening devices to hire people with those skills.
Concurrent controls monitor ongoing employee activity to ensure consistency with quality standards. These controls rely on performance standards, rules, and regulations for guiding employee tasks and behaviours. Their purpose is to ensure that work activities produce the desired results. As an example, many manufacturing operations include devices that measure whether the items being produced meet quality standards. Employees monitor the measurements; if they see that standards are not being met in some area, they make a correction themselves or let a manager know that a problem is occurring.
Feedback controls involve reviewing information to determine whether performance meets established standards. For example, suppose that an organization establishes a goal of increasing its profit by 12 percent next year. To ensure that this goal is reached, the organization must monitor its profit on a monthly basis. After three months, if profit has increased by 3 percent, management might assume that plans are going according to schedule.
6.4 TIME MANAGEMENT
It seems that there is never enough time in the day. But, since we all get the same 24 hours, why is it that some people achieve so much more with their time than others? The answer lies in good time management. The highest achievers manage their time exceptionally well. By using the time-management techniques in this section, you can improve your ability to function more effectively – even when time is tight and pressures are high.
Good time management requires an important shift in focus from activities to results: being busy isn’t the same as being effective. (Ironically, the opposite is often closer to the truth.)Spending your day in a frenzy of activity often achieves less, because you’re dividing your attention between so many different tasks. Good time management lets you work smarter – not harder – so you get more done in less time.
Time management is the process of organizing and planning how much time you spend on specific activities. Invest some time in our comprehensive collection of time management articles to learn about managing your own time more efficiently, and save yourself time in the future
“Time management” refers to the way that you organize and plan how long you spend on specific activities.
It may seem counter-intuitive to dedicate precious time to learning about time management, instead of using it to get on with your work, but the benefits are enormous:
1. Greater productivity and efficiency.
2. A better professional reputation.
3. Less stress.
4. Increased opportunities for advancement.
5. Greater opportunities to achieve important life and career goals.
Failing to manage your time effectively can have some very undesirable consequences:
1. Missed deadlines.
2. Inefficient work flow.
3. Poor work quality.
4. A poor professional reputation and a stalled career.
5. Higher stress levels.
Spending a little time learning about time-management techniques will have huge benefits now – and throughout your career.